Endangered Syria Heritage was created by Dr Nigel Pollard and Stephanie Brown. 

Nigel is an archaeologist and historian at Swansea University working on heritage protection in the Second World War and today. He took all of the photographs on this website while working in Syria.

Stephanie is an undergraduate History and Medieval Studies student and student rep at Swansea University. She worked with Nigel to digitize and catalogue the images and then created this website.

Nigel is happy for these images to be used privately, for teaching or research purposes. I’m also happy for them to be published on-line or in print so long as he is notified and receive acknowledgment with a credit that includes his name (Nigel Pollard) and a reference to Swansea University.


For more on War and Heritage, attend Dr Nigel Pollard’s talk on “Heritage, Protection and Military Necessity? The ‘monuments men’ and the Allied bombing of Pompeii August -September 1943” at the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea – 11am on 17 December 2016. Join the event on Facebook and visit the HA Swansea events page.

Further Reading

Ball, Warwick. Rome in the East the Transformation of an Empire (London; New York: Routledge, 2000).

Butcher, Kevin. Roman Syria (London: British Museum, 2003).

Mango, M. M. 2012. Androna/Andarin. The Encyclopedia of Ancient History.

Pollard, Nigel. Soldiers, Cities, and Civilians in Roman Syria, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000).

Stoneman, Richard. Palmyra and Its Empire : Zenobia’s Revolt against Rome (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992).


BBC Radio Wales, Good Morning Wales, 28 March 2016 http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b074gkqh (From 1 hour 19 mins).

BBC Radio 4, In Our Time, Queen Zenobia. http://bbc.in/12XEa00